Acknowledgement: we thank Ariel Gabizon, Daira Hopwood, Kobi Gurkan, Pratyush Mishra (in alphabetical order) for their kindly reviews and insightful comments.

In this article we brief three directions on optimizing PLONK, which is a polynomial interactive oracle proofs (IOP) zkSNARK systems. Proof systems other than using IOP also exist, for comparisons please refer to: A Survey of Progress in Succinct Zero-Knowledge Proofs.

The 3 layers of a polynomial IOP zkSNARK system

  • Accumulation layer: for Recursive Proof Composition
  • IOP layer: PlonK core is here
  • Polynomial commitment layer: for efficiently verifying polynomials

Readers can gain a basic idea on the relationships between each layer from (although it’s about Halo 2…

Acknowledgement: we would like to thank barryWhiteHat, Jordi Baylina, Koh Wei Jie (in alphabetical order) for their insightful feedbacks.

Prerequisites: basic programming and blockchain knowledge, no cryptography background needed.

Currently, major expectations on blockchain technology are further scaling, higher performance and lower costs. In this post, we will dive into ZK-Rollup, which is one of the Ethereum layer 2 scaling solutions. It exquisitely applies a zero knowledge proof technique (known as ZK-SNARK) to reduce the on-chain costs, and thus, is able to improve Ethereum TPS considerably (~10x-100x). …

Dex trading, but serious

CEXs have been criticized a lot for their custody scheme. Recently, a top CEX in China ran into issues and users were not able to withdraw their funds for a month.

We believe in “Not your keys, not your coin”, and therefore want to build a better DEX for crypto trading.

Uniswap offers simple-to-use trading experience. We like the KISS (Keep it simple, stupid) principle behind it. However, we believe that there still lies a more promising market in terms of serious trading. …

Fluid Dex

Building the first PLONK layer2 DEX on Ethereum

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